The current state of the agricultural sector in Kazakhstan can be assessed as follows: there is great potential, but only 10% of this potential is used. The first reason is the inaccessibility of land resources due to outdated land legislation. The second is the lack of funding for the industry. The third is the lack of industry expertise. And fourth, the most important thing is the lack of priority for the state in the development of this industry. However, despite all the problems and difficulties, over the past 5-10 years there have been certain changes for the better. We see that beef cattle breeding has begun to develop in the republic.
The situation with personnel can be characterized as follows: very few young people come to work in the industry, and mature, already working personnel are not motivated to master something new. Therefore, in the training programs for university and TVE students, it is necessary to focus on obtaining practical knowledge.
As for new technologies, in agriculture there is an increase in automation, a departure from the human factor. The main trend for agriculture (in particular, crop production) of the republic is developed irrigation.
I'll give you a simple example. To grow an annual plant, such as corn, you need quality seeds with great growth potential, you need nutrients (potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.) that the plant takes from the soil, and you need sunlight. But the most important thing is moisture. And if one of the ingredients is missing, you will not get the harvest. In our conditions, you can buy seeds, fertilizers, sunlight is enough, but we do not have enough moisture, little rain. So moisture is a risk and only irrigated agriculture is the answer. Irrigated agriculture will be cheaper than greenhouse production, because you don't need to build anything, you just need to "deliver" the water already available from rivers and melt water to the fields. And if we do not start to develop irrigation, then we will face a big problem. Now we have neither technology, nor personnel, nor experience for this. And it is necessary to pay special attention to this.
With the development of automation, I think, we will no longer need narrow-profile specialists, the same agronomists-breeders, automation will be better than a person to make specific decisions and implement these decisions. However, even with the proliferation of automation, people on the ground will still be needed. It will be possible to attract smart, educated people to work in the industry only if life in the village is convenient and comfortable.